Tuesday, June 12, 10:45am–12:15pm
6B.1 Practical and strategic gender needs in tuna fisheries in the Philippines: Focus on women’s occupational and health hazards – Marieta Bañez Sumagaysay, University of the Philippines Visayas and UPV Tacloban College
The 2017 gender analysis of the tuna fisheries value chain in General Santos City, Philippines showed that gender differentials exist and these impact heavily on women who are marginalized in a male-dominated fishing industry. Traditional gender roles and a patriarchal society’s expectations/beliefs make women vulnerable to occupational and health hazards which further lessen their productivity and efficiency, diminish their capacity to earn, and reduce their self-esteem as a woman and as man’s co-worker.
Data were gathered from focus group discussions, key informant interviews, surveys, and secondary sources from three sectors: municipal small-scale fisheries, large-scale (purse seine and handline) fisheries, and tuna value-added processors. The researchers used gender tools/principles and the USAID six domains of gender analysis, i.e., access to assets, beliefs/knowledge, practices/participation, time and space, legal rights/status, and power/decision making.
Practical gender needs (PGNs) include women’s vulnerability to sexual harassment in the workplace, absence of gender-responsive facilities, inadequate social security/insurance, and poor working conditions such as long hours of standing, night shifts, lack of protective gears/clothing, poor ventilation. The strategic gender needs (SGNs) include the lack of women-friendly equipment/fishing paraphernalia that limit women’s work participation, just as it poses as occupational and safety hazards to women. Addressing PGNs can improve women’s quality of life in terms of health care, protection, and safety, while addressing SGNs can minimize her subordinate status.
Men have PGNs and SGNs, too, but these are generally ignored and muted because society dictates that men are physically strong, and have been prepared to take dominant/manly roles regardless of the hazards it may take.
The study recommends that policy making and program development should embrace a gender lens at all value chain nodes. Policy measures, research initiatives, and action interventions cannot be gender-blind if fisheries have to be inclusive by taking care of women partners in the industry.
6B.2 A review of fishing safety and occupational health on Lake Malawi: Technical and policy issues – Njaya Friday, Malawi Department of Fisheries
This paper seeks to review progress made on fishing safety and occupational health on Lake Malawi over a decade ago. The aim is to examine whether there have been any changes on technical and policy aspects. Both primary and secondary data are used in this assessment. Primary data was collected in fishing communities and focused mainly on fishing technologies. The annual frame survey data done every year in September and the latest being September 2017 provides such data. Secondary data is used to review policy at both national and international levels. There are changes in terms of type of fishing vessels as there is an increase in the use of powered vessels to enable the small-scale fishers access offshore fishing grounds; mainly to target usipa (Engraucilicypris sardella) and utaka (copadichromis spp.). Vessels powered by 25hp engines have increased by 44% from 794 in 2008 to 1,793 in 2018. However, this is risky as the fishers do not use life-saving facilities like life jackets hence lake accidents occur every year. Occupational health issues are still common as workers spend the whole day trawling throughout the day while exposed to direct sun. However, on policy issues, the revised National Fisheries and Aquaculture Policy of 2016 recognises the need for promoting decent employment as stipulated in the Social Development and Decent Work as one of the policy priority areas. This is in line with the FAO Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries of 2015 which calls States to promote decent work for small-scale fisheries workers, including both the formal and informal sectors. A key recommendation is to amend the fishing legislation to govern the decent employment by formulating rules on fishing safety. In addition, capacity building among the fishers on fishing safety and decent work is recommended.
6B.3 Safety conditions on smaller vessels in the Norwegian fishing fleet – Halvord Aasjord and Ingunn Marie Holmen SINTEF Ocean
Background: The smaller coastal fishing fleet are the most risky with respect to fatal accidents. Accidents data over long periods like a 28 year period from 1990 – 2017, where so far 67 % of all fatal accidents are related to fishing vessels, length; Loa < 15 meter. Of these fatal losses, 62 % were fishers on so-called one-man boats. That gives 42 % of all fatal accidents in the Norwegian fishing fleet happens on board on one-man boats.
Main causes of fatal accidents on smaller vessels:
- Vessel casualty incl. capsizing
- Overboard accidents – drowning
- Harbour accidents – drowning
- Stroke and crush in fishing operations
Statistics of fatal accidents for the smaller fishing fleet are presented for 5-year periods.
There has been a decrease in number of fishing boats in the smaller length groups, Loa < 15 meters and quota are often transferred from the smaller length groups to larger length groups.
That means that many fishermen, especially older ones, have sold out their quotas from group I and ends up to fish their quota in group II, then mostly as an one-man fishermen. This seems to give much higher risky operations in respect to fatal accidents.
Then the Norwegian Maritime Authorities (NMA) have now introduced full safety standard and periodic control for all the smaller fishing fleet from 8.0 to 15 meter. Consequences will be that many older vessels still in operation will get same safety control than newer vessels and many of them will therefore be phased out of “The register of fishing vessels”. This because the owners find it too expensive upgrade his vessel to a higher standard.
The next step is the introduction of safety management also on smaller fishing vessels, and this regulation was implemented by NMA on 1 January 2017. In 2018 the NMA will focus on safety management on smaller vessels, with an emphasis on operational issues. Lacking procedures for operations and weaknesses in organizational, leadership and communication issues are often a factor in vessel accidents. The expected safety effect and any other outcomes of these new safety regulations will be discussed in this presentation, not least from the users’ point of view.
Aasjord HL, Holmen IM, Thorvaldsen T (2012). Occupational accidents and causalities in the Norwegian fishing fleet (In Norwegian). SINTEF report A23369. ISBN 978-82-14-05451-4.
McGuinness E, Aasjord HL, Utne IB, Holmen IM (2013b). Fatalities in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet 1990-2011. Safety Science 57: 335-351.
Aasjord, HL, Enerhaug, B. (2013). Stability and stability margins on smaller fishing vessels. (In Norwegian). SINTEF-report A24663, ISBN 978-82-14-05638-9.
Aasjord, H L., Holmen, IM. (2016): Fisherman on small fishing vessels lives a very risky life. (In Norwegian).Ramazzini (Norwegian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine). Year 23. 2016 – No. 1.
NMA (2017). Documents included in the control scheme for fishing vessels below 15 meters: https://www.sjofartsdir.no/sjofart/fartoy/tilsyn/kontroll-av-fartoy-under-15-meter/dokumentliste-kontrollordning-for-fiskefartoy/
6B.4 Dehydration in New Zealand fishing vessel crews – Marion Edwin, Optimise Ltd.; Dave Moore, AUT University, New Zealand; Darren Guard, Guard Safety
High musculoskeletal injury rates in crew on large (>28 m) New Zealand fishing vessels lead to an exploratory investigation of ergonomics risk factors. Initial findings indicated that hypo-hydration appeared to be both significant and common, and was of concern as crew work rotating shifts for up to 6 week periods.
Review of the international (English language) literature reveals that no hydration evaluation specific to crew on fishing vessels has been published to date. Dehydration research has however occurred in forestry, mining and manual labour industries with knowledge that can be applied to the maritime work environment. This includes an understanding of the problems that may develop in relation to dehydration, and relevant research and intervention methodologies. Further, the health effects of consuming the desalinated water that is typically provided on large fishing vessels appears to be little understood by fishing operators.
This paper describes the hydration findings of an exploratory ergonomics assessment of crew on NZ fishing vessels, and reviews the relevant literature.
Practitioner Summary: Dehydration impacts on physical and cognitive aspects of worker performance and long term health. Hypo-hydration of crew on working fishing vessels may lead to performance decrements and productivity losses. Assessing hydration of crew on-vessel poses some challenges to researchers but offers a powerful learning environment for participating crew members.